Friday, February 24, 2017

Podcast: Security and Core Infrastructure Initiative with Nicko Van Someren

As the CTO of the Linux Foundation, Nicko Van Someren also heads the Cloud Infrastructure Initiative. The CII was created in the wake of high visibility issues with widely-used but poorly funded open source infrastructure projects. (Most notably, the Heartbleed vulnerability with OpenSSL.) In this podcast, Nicko discusses how the CII works, his strategy moving forward, and how consumers of open source software can improve their security outcomes.

In addition to discussing the CII directly, Nicko also talked about encouraging open source developers to think about security as a high priority throughout the development process--as well as the need to cultivate this sort of thinking, and to get buy-in, across the entire community.

Nicko also offered advice about keeping yourself safe as a consumer of open source. His first point was that you need to know what code you have in your product. His second was to get involved with open source projects that are important to your product because "open source projects fail when the community around them fails."

Core Infrastructure Initiative, which includes links to a variety of resources created by the CII

Link to MP3 (00:15:01)
Link to OGG (00:15:01)


Gordon Haff:   I'm sitting here with Nicko van Someren, who's the CTO of the Linux Foundation, and he heads the Core Infrastructure Initiative. Nicko, give a bit of your background, and explain what the CII is?
Nicko van Someren:  Sure. My background's in security. I've been in the industry‑side of security for 20 plus years, but I joined the Linux Foundation a year ago to head up the Core Infrastructure Initiative, which is a program to try and drive improvement in the security outcomes in open‑source projects. In particular, in the projects that underpin an awful lot of the Internet and the businesses that we run on it. The infrastructural components, those bits of open source that we all depend on, even if we don't see them on a day‑to‑day basis.
Gordon:  Around the time that you came in, you've been in the job, what, a little over a year, is that right? There were some pretty high visibility issues with some of that infrastructure.
Nicko:  Yeah, and I think it goes back a couple of years further. Around three years ago, the Core Infrastructure Initiative ‑‑ we call it the CII ‑‑ was set up, largely in the wake of the Heartbleed bug, which impacted nearly 70 percent of the web servers on the planet.
We saw a vulnerability in a major open‑source project, which had very profound impact on people across the board, whether they were in the open‑source community, or whether they were running commercial systems, or whether they were building products on top of open source. All of these people were impacted by this very significant bug.
While the community moved swiftly to fix the bug and get the patch out there, it became very apparent that as the world becomes more dependent on open‑source software, it becomes more and more critical that those who are dependent on it support the development of those projects and support improving the security outcomes of those projects.
Gordon:  Many of the projects that we're talking about there, was a tragedy of the commons sort of situation, where you had a few volunteers ‑‑ not being paid by anyone, asking for donations on their PayPal accounts-- who, in many cases, were responsible for these very critical systems.
Nicko:  Absolutely. Probably trillions of dollars of business were being done in 2014 on Open SSL, and yet in 2013, they received 3,000 bucks worth of donations from industry to support the development of the project. This is quite common for the projects that are under the hood, not the glossy projects that everybody sees.
The flagship projects get a lot of traction with a big community around them, but there's all of this plumbing underneath that is often maintained by very small communities ‑‑ often one or two people ‑‑ without the financial support that comes with having big businesses putting big weight behind them.
Gordon:  What exactly does the CII do? You don't really code, as I understand it.
Nicko:  Well, I code in my spare time, but the CII doesn't develop code itself, for the most part. What we do is, we work to identify at‑risk projects that are high‑impact but low‑engagement.
We try to support those projects with things like doing security audits where appropriate, by occasionally putting engineers directly on coding, often putting resources in architecture and security process to try to help them help themselves by giving them the tools they need to improve security outcomes.
We're funding the development of new security testing tools. We're providing tools to help projects assess themselves against well‑understood security practices that'll help give better outcomes. Then, when they don't meet all the criteria, help them achieve those criteria so that they can get better security outcomes.
Gordon:  In terms of the projects under the CII, how do you think about that? What's the criteria?
Nicko:  We try to take a fairly holistic approach. Sometimes we're investing directly in pieces of infrastructure that we all rely on, things like OpenSSL, Bouncy Castle, GnuPG, or OpenSSH, other security‑centric projects.
But also things like last year, we were funding a couple of initiatives in network time, those components that we're all working with, but we don't necessarily see at the top layer. We're also funding tooling and task framework, so we have been putting money into a project called Frama‑C, which is a framework for C testing.
We've been funding The Fuzzing Project, which is an initiative to do fuzz testing on open‑source projects and find vulnerabilities and report them and get them fixed.
We've been working with the Reproducible Build project to get binary reproducibility of build processes, so the people can be sure that when they download a binary, they know that it matches what would have been built if they downloaded the source.
We're also funding some more educational programs, for instance, the Badging Program allows people to assess themselves against a set of practices which are known good security practices, and they get a little badge for their GitHub project or for their website if they meet those criteria.
We have a Census Project, where we've been pooling different sets of data about the engagement in projects and the level of bug reporting and the quickness of turn‑around of bug fixes, and the impact of those projects in terms of who's dependent on it, and try to synthesize some information about how much risk there is.
Then, publish those risk scores and encourage fixes. We're trying to take a mixture of some fairly tactical approaches, but also have investment in some strategic approaches, which are going to lead to all open‑source projects getting better security outcomes in the long run.
Gordon:  How do you split those? Certainly, some of the projects, particularly early on, it was very tactical, "There's frankly a house fire going on here, and it needs to be put out."
Then, some of the things that you're doing in terms of the assessment checklists and things like that, that feels much more strategic and forward‑looking. How do you balance those two, or if you could put a percentage, even, "Oh, I spend 30 percent of my time doing this?"
Nicko:  That's, of course, the perennial question. We have finite resources and huge need for this. Resource allocation is what I ask input from my board members for how they think. We, historically, have had a fairly even split between the tactical and the strategic.
Going forwards, we're trying to move to probably put more into the strategic stuff, because we feel like we can get better leverage, more magnification of the effect, if we put money into a tool and the capabilities to use that tool. I think one of the things we're looking at for 2017 is work to improve the usability of a lot of security tools.
There's no shortage of great tools for doing static analysis or fuzz testing, but there is often a difficulty in making it easy for you to integrate those into a continuous test process for an open‑source project. Trying to build things to make it easier to deploy the existing open‑source tools is an area in the strategic spin that we want to put a lot into in 2017.
Gordon:  As we also look forward at some of the areas that are developing in this point, Automotive Grade Linux, for example, AirNav's things, there's new vectors of threats coming in, and areas of infrastructure that maybe historically weren't that important from a security perspective are becoming much more so. What's on your radar in that regard?
Nicko:  I think, obviously, one of the biggest issues that we're facing going forwards is with Internet of Things. I think we have been seeing a lot of people forgetting all the things that we've learned in desktop and server security over the years, as they rush into getting things out there, Internet‑connected.
Often, it's easy to have a good idea about Internet‑connecting something and building a service around it. It's less easy to think about the security implications of doing that in a hasty manner.
We've been talking with a number of players in this space about, "How do we adapt some of the programs we've already built for improving the security process in open‑source projects to apply those to the development of IoT devices?" I think that we can do quite a lot in that space, just with the tools we've already got, tuning them to the appropriate community.
Gordon:  Anything else that you'd like to talk about?
Nicko:  One of the biggest issues that we face is improving the security outcomes in open source is to encourage open‑source developers to think about security as a high priority, as high a priority as performance or scalability or usability.
We've got to put security up there as one of the top priority list items. We also have to make sure that, because most open‑source projects get developed in a very collaborative way with a community around them, that you get buy‑in to that taking it as a priority across the whole community.
That's the best first step to getting good security outcomes, is to have people think about security early, have them think about it often, and have them keep it as a top‑of‑mind priority as they go through the development process. If they do that, then you can get very good security outcomes just by using the same practices we use everywhere else in software engineering.
Gordon:  In one of the areas I work around DevOps and continuous integration and application platforms, like one of the terms that's starting to go off currency is a DevSecOps term, and the push‑back of that is, "Oh, we know security needs to be in DevOps." Well, if you know it, it doesn't happen a lot of the time.
Nicko:  I think that's true. I think it's a question of making sure that you have it as a priority. At my last company, I was actively involved in doing high‑security software, but we were using an agile development process.
We managed to square those two by making sure the security was there in the documentation as the definition of done. You couldn't get through the iterative process without making sure that you were keeping the threat models up to date and going through the security reviews.
Code review ought to involve security review as well as just making sure that the tabs are replaced by four spaces. We need to integrate security into the whole process of being a community of developers.
Gordon:  One other final area, and it's probably less under the purview of something like the CII, but as we've been much talking about in this conference, open source has become pervasive, and that's obviously a great thing.
It also means that people are in the position of grabbing a lot of code ‑‑ perfectly legally ‑‑ from all kinds of different repositories and sticking it into their own code, and it may not be the latest version, it may have vulnerabilities.
Nicko:  Absolutely, and I think, key to keeping yourself safe as a consumer of open source...
Well, there are probably two things there. One is you need to know what you've got in your products, whether you built them yourself or whether you brought them in, there's going to be open source in there.
You need to know what packages are in there, you need to know what versions of packages are in there. You need to know how those are going to get updated as the original projects get updated. That whole dependency tracking needs to be something that you think about as part of your security operations process.
The other bit is, get involved. Open‑source projects fail when the community around them fails. If you want a good security outcome from the open‑source projects that you use, get involved. Don't just complain that it doesn't work, come up with a good diagnose bug report and file it.
Maybe produce a patch, and even if you don't produce the patch that gets accepted, you've given them the idea for how to fix it, and they'll go and recode it in their own style. If you're going to be dependent on the security of this project, put an engineer on it.
Get involved in these projects, and that's the way to make sure that you get really good security outcomes, is for people who care about the security of these products to get involved.

Gordon:  Well, I think that's as good a finish as any! Thank you.

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